Terminology and related requirements
Luminaire efficiency: the ratio of the luminous flux value emitted by the luminaire measured under the specified conditions to the sum of the measured luminous flux value emitted by all light sources within the luminaire. The use of conventional road lighting fixtures, luminaire efficiency of less than 60% should not be selected.
Maintenance factor: lighting device after a period of time, the average illuminance produced on the working surface and the device is newly installed in the same conditions produced by the ratio of the average illuminance.
Road effective width: with the actual width of the road, the length of the lamp overhang and the layout of the lamps and lanterns and other related theoretical distance.
When the luminaire adopts the single-side arrangement, the effective width of the road is the actual width of the road minus an overhang length.
When the luminaire using double side (including staggered and relative) layout, the effective width of the road for the actual road width minus two overhang length.
When the lamps and lanterns in the central part of the double road with the center symmetric arrangement, the effective width of the road is the actual width of the road.
The installation height of the luminaire: the light center of the luminaire to the vertical distance of the road.
The installation spacing of the luminaire: the distance between two adjacent lamps and lanterns measured along the centerline of the road.
Overhang length: the light center of the luminaire to the adjacent side of the horizontal distance of the edge stone, that is, the horizontal distance of the luminaire probe or indent into the edge stone.
Arm length: the horizontal distance from the vertical centerline of the pole to the point where the arm is inserted into the luminaire.
Luminaire type: cut-off type, semi-cut-off type and non-cut-off type.
Lighting standards Road lighting standards are shown in Table 1.
Level Road type Brightness Illuminance Glare limit Induced
Average luminance Lav(cd/m2) Uniformity
Lmin/Lav Average luminance Eav(lx) Uniformity
Ⅰ Expressway 1.5 0.4 20 0.4 Non-intercepting lamps are strictly prohibited Very good
Ⅱ Main roads and welcoming roads, main roads leading to government agencies and large public buildings, roads in the city center or commercial centers, large transportation hubs, etc. 1.0 0.35 15 0.35 The use of non-intercepting lamps and lanterns is strictly prohibited.
Ⅲ secondary roads 0.5 0.35 8 0.35 shall not use non-interceptor type lamps and lanterns good
Ⅳ Bypass 0.3 0.3 5 0.3 Not suitable for non-intermittent lamps and lanterns Good
V mainly for pedestrians, non-motorized residential roads and sidewalks – 1-2 – the use of lamps and lanterns are not restricted – 1.
1. the average illuminance listed in the table is only applicable to asphalt pavement, if the concrete pavement, the average illuminance value can be reduced by 20-30%.
2. the values in the table are only applicable to dry pavement.
3. three roads, four roads, the average illumination value of the non-motorized lane for the adjacent motor vehicle lanes should be 1/2.
4. the average luminance (or illuminance) values are required to maintain the value of the newly installed light sources, lamps and lanterns of the road, the initial luminance (or illuminance) value of the road surface should be increased by 30-50%.
5 selected road lighting standards, take into account the nature and size of the city, the general small and medium-sized cities can be used for road types low 1 standard.
A light source and the choice of lamps and lanterns
1, the choice of light source
(1) solar road lighting should use new high-efficiency lamps and lanterns, should not use incandescent lamps and other lamps with low luminous efficacy.
(2) the choice of light source should comply with the following provisions.
① fast roads and suburban roads with low requirements for color recognition should use low-pressure sodium lamps, high-power LED or electromagnetic induction induction lamps.
② main roads and secondary roads should use LED or electromagnetic induction induction lamps.
③ branch roads and residential roads, it is appropriate to use LED, electromagnetic induction induction lamp, high-efficiency DC energy-saving lamps.
2. The choice of lamps and lanterns
(A) motorway should use functional lamps and lanterns.
(1) expressways and trunk roads must use cut-off type, semi-cut-off type lamps and lanterns.
(2) secondary roads should use semi-truncated lamps and lanterns
(3) branch roads should use semi-intercept type lamps and lanterns
(B) prohibit motor vehicle traffic commercial streets, residential roads, pedestrian walkways, pedestrian bridges and non-motorized paths necessary to set up separate lights should use a good combination of decorative and functional lamps or decorative lamps with high mechanical strength.
(C) the use of high-pole lighting, it is appropriate to use a more concentrated beam of floodlights.
(D) high lighting standards, serious environmental pollution, maintenance difficulties in the road and place should be used for dustproof and waterproof level lamps and lanterns.
(E) high content of acid and alkali and other corrosive gases in the air in the area or place should use higher corrosion-resistant lamps and lanterns.
(F) places where strong vibrations occur should be used with shock-absorbing measures of lamps and lanterns.
Second, the way of laying lights and requirements
1, the layout of lights
Conventional lighting has a unilateral arrangement, bilateral staggered arrangement, bilateral symmetrical arrangement, horizontal suspension arrangement and center symmetrical arrangement of the five basic ways to lay lights, as shown in Figure 1.
(1) unilateral arrangement; (2) bilateral staggered arrangement; (3) bilateral symmetrical arrangement; (4) transverse suspension arrangement; (5) center symmetrical arrangement
2. Related requirements
(1) the use of conventional lighting, the type of light distribution of lamps and lanterns, light distribution, installation height and spacing should be consistent with the conditions shown in Table 2.
Table 2 The type of light distribution, lighting and installation height, spacing relationship
Light distribution type cut-off type half cut-off type non-cut-off type
Light distribution method installation height H (m) spacing S (m) installation height H (m) spacing S (m) installation height H (m) spacing S (m)
Single-side arrangement H≥Weff S≤3H H≥1.2Weff S≤3.5H H≥1.4Weff S≤4H
Staggered arrangement H≥0.7Weff S≤3H H≥0.8Weff S≤3.5H H≥0.9Weff S≤4H
Symmetrical arrangement H ≥ 0.5Weff S ≤ 3H H ≥ 0.6Weff S ≤ 3.5H H ≥ 0.7Weff S ≤ 4H
Note: Weff is the effective width of the road (m)
(2) The overhang length of the lamps should not exceed 1/4 of the installation height, and the elevation angle of the lamps should not exceed 15 degrees.
III. System Composition
The system is composed of solar panel, battery, controller, light source, lampshade, lamp pole, battery seal box, battery fixing frame, cable accessories, etc.
Fourth, the comparison of various types of light sources
Solar lamps and lanterns in the light source are: energy-saving lamps, induction lamps, low-pressure sodium lamps, LED, high-pressure sodium lamps, metal halide lamps.
(1) low-pressure sodium lamp
Features: high luminous efficiency, long life, high luminous flux maintenance rate, strong fog permeability, but poor color rendering.
Uses: Tunnel, port, dock, mine and other lighting.
(2) High-pressure sodium lamp
Features: long life, high luminous efficacy, strong fog transmission.
Uses: road lighting, flood lighting, square lighting, industrial lighting, etc.
(3) Metal halide lamps
Features: long life, high luminous efficacy, good color rendering.
Uses: industrial lighting, urban lighting project lighting, commercial lighting, stadium lighting and road lighting, etc.
(4) High frequency induction lamp
Features: long life (40000-80000h), no electrode, instant start and restart, no strobe, good color rendering.
Uses: public buildings, stores, tunnels, pedestrian streets, high pole street lights, security and safety lighting and other outdoor lighting, etc.
(5) Light Emitting Diode – LED
LED is an electroluminescent solid-state semiconductor light source.
Features: high brightness point light source, can radiate various color light and white light, 0-100% light output (electronic dimming), long life, shock and vibration resistant, no ultraviolet (UV) and infrared (IR) radiation, and work at low voltage.
Uses: traffic signals, highway demarcation lighting, road guardrail lighting, car tail lights, exit and entrance indicators, bridge or building outline lighting and decorative lighting, etc.
The main performance indicators of several light sources are shown in Table 3.
Table 3 technical performance indicators of the main electric light source
Light source type luminous efficacy (lm / w) color rendering index (Ra) color temperature (k) average life (h)
General lighting incandescent lamp 15 100 2800 1000
Tungsten halogen lamp 25 100 3000 2000-5000
Ordinary fluorescent lamps 70 70 full series 10000
Trichromatic fluorescent lamp 93 80-98 full series 12,000
Compact fluorescent lamp 60 85 full series 8000
High-pressure mercury lamp 50 45 3300-4300 6000
Metal halide lamp 75-95 65-92 3000/4500/5600 6000-20000
High pressure sodium lamp 100-120 23/60/85 1950/2200/2500 24000
Low-pressure sodium lamp 200 1750 28000
High-frequency induction lamp 55-70 85 3000-4000 40000-80000
Five, solar lamps and lanterns light source selection
Garden lights: energy-saving lamps, LED.
Street lights: induction lamps, low-pressure sodium lamps, metal halide lamps.
garden lights usually height range generally: 2.5m – 4.5m.
Light source categories: 7w, 9w, 11w, 13w, 15w, 18w, two 5w, two 7w, two 9w DC energy-saving lamps, according to the different brightness requirements of customers to choose.
2.5m garden lights can choose 9w energy-saving lamps.
3-3.5m garden lights can choose 11w or two 5w energy-saving lamps.
4-4.5m garden lights can choose 13w or two 7w energy-saving lamps.
According to the actual needs, the above configuration can be appropriately elevated or reduced light source configuration power according to the specific brightness and cost requirements.
The usual height range of street lights is generally: 5m-12m.
Light source categories: 20-70w high-power LED; 18w, 35w, 55w low-pressure sodium lamp; 23w, 40w, 60w, 80w induction lamp.
5m-6m street light can choose 20wLED, 18w low-pressure sodium lamp or 23w induction lamp.
6m-7m street light can choose 25-30wLED, 35w low-pressure sodium lamp or 40w induction lamp.
7m-8m street light can choose 30-40wLED, 35w, 55w low-pressure sodium lamp or 60w induction lamp.
8m-10m street light can choose 40-60wLED, 55w low-pressure sodium lamp or 80w induction lamp.
10m-12m street light can choose 50-80wLED, 55w low-pressure sodium lamp, two 35w low-pressure sodium lamps or 80w, 120w induction lamp.
According to actual needs, the above configuration can be appropriately elevated or reduced light source configuration power according to the specific brightness situation and cost requirements.
7 solar lighting control form
Solar lamps and lanterns lighting control form: light control on – light control off, light control on – time control off, time control on – time control off, evening – early morning on the two ends of the time control, the main and auxiliary lights double road control.
Light control on – light control off: in the evening when the light intensity is lower than a certain value, the light source automatically lights up, and in the early morning when the light intensity is higher than a certain value, the light source automatically goes out.
Light control on – time control off: In the evening when the light intensity is below a certain value, the light source automatically lights up and starts timing, and when the predetermined off time is reached, the light source automatically turns off.
Time-controlled on – Time-controlled off: In the evening when the predetermined on time is reached, the light source automatically lights up, and in the early morning when the predetermined off time is reached, the light source automatically goes off.
Evening – early morning on both ends of the time control: in the evening when the light intensity is below a certain value, the light source automatically lights up, and when it reaches the predetermined off time, the light source automatically goes out; in the early morning when it reaches the predetermined on time, the light source automatically lights up, and in the early morning when the light intensity is above a certain value, the light source automatically goes out.
Main and auxiliary lights dual control: the light source is divided into the main light and auxiliary lights two ways, in the evening when the light intensity is lower than a certain value, the light source automatically lights, the main and auxiliary lights can be controlled separately for the light off time, in order to combine the main and auxiliary lights different working modes.